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Status of Gaming Enabling Laws22 August 1999
The following are American jurisdictions having recent activity concerning legal gambling. States and territories with legal gaming devices are marked with an asterisk: *; while states allowing, by law or compact, at least one casino (defined as having both banking card games and slot-like machines) are marked with a exclamation point: !, even if the casino is not yet open.
UNITED STATES - On April 12, 1999, Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbitt issue proposed regulations which would give him the power to approve tribal casinos over a state's objections. Florida and Alabama immediately filed suit and a bill was introduced in the Senate to overrule the regs. The National Gambling Impact Study Commission must report to Congress in June 1999 on "the social and economic impacts of gambling in the United States." Sen. Jon Kyl has reintroduced his Internet Gambling Prohibition Act, without the provision making betting a crime; the House version would allow states to set their own policies on Internet gaming. On June 14, 1999 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that casinos have the right to broadcast commercials in their home states.
ALABAMA - The Poarch Band of Creek Indians sued the state when the Governor refused to negotiate for casinos. The 11th Circuit ruled: 1) a state could not be sued without its consent; but, 2) then the Secretary of the Interior would make the gaming regulations. In the Seminole case, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the first, and refused to look at the second, leaving tribes and states in limbo. Incumbent Gov. Fob James Jr. (R.) opposed a state lottery and lost reelection to Don Siegelman (D.) in November 1998. A constitutional amendment to allow a state lottery will pass this year or next. The state's four dog tracks (going broke) will not get video poker machines; the House voted in favor, 49-48, but the Senate killed the most recent proposal after two days of filibuster.
ALASKA - Casinos are prohibited by state law; yet, the Governor was negotiating to allow the Klawock band of Tlingit Indians to open a full casino on remote Prince of Wales Island.
!*ARIZONA - Indian tribes operate casinos with slots year-round because charities may have occasional casino nights with slot machines. Former Gov. Symington signed compacts with 16 tribes, but, misreading the federal Ninth Circuit's opinion in Rumsey, refused to sign any more. In November 1996, voters approved the "Fairness Initiative," 64% to 36%, requiring the state to negotiate compacts with the five tribes that had been left out -- the first time in American history a state voted to allow new high-stakes casinos in the face of active opposition. See MICHIGAN. The 17 compacts begin to expire in 2003. The House of Representative approved raising the gambling age from 18 to 21; the measure is pending in the Senate.
ARKANSAS - Competing constitutional amendments gathered enough signatures to be on the November 1996 ballot. But the state Supreme Court found all but one misleading. The remaining initiative to legalize casinos lost by a landslide, due in part to the state's active religious organizations and opposition from Mississippi's casinos. Two new initiatives have been proposed for the 2000 election to create casino monopolies.
!* CALIFORNIA - Tribes won voter approval of Prop. 5 (at a cost of $63 million), which would make legal their slot machines and banking blackjack. The state Supreme Court issued a stay, because Prop. 5 seems to violate the state Constitutional prohibition on Nevada- and New Jersey-style casinos. The Court heard oral arguments on June 1 and is required to issue a ruling by Aug. 30. Former Gov. Pete Wilson had signed compacts with the Pala Band and ten other tribes, allowing them to have limited numbers of slot-like lottery terminals. But the "Pala compacts" have been stalled by a referendum set for the March 2000 election. Gov. Grey Davis expects to sign new compacts, similar to Prop. 5, but with limits, within a few weeks. Meanwhile, approximately 42 Indian casinos stay open. Legislation creating a gaming control board passed in 1997 to regulate the state's 153 card clubs, but Gov. Davis has still not made his appointments.
!*COLORADO - Five dollar maximum blackjack, poker and slot machines are in casinos in three mountain towns and on two Indian reservations. Widespread gray market video gaming devices pay off, when police aren't around. In 1994 voters overwhelmingly rejected adding new towns and slot machines in every airport. In 1996 voters again rejected expansion, voting against adding a fourth town.
!*CONNECTICUT - Then-Gov. Weicker signed compacts giving an oligopoly on slots to two tribes, for 25% of net slot win or $80 million, each, whichever is greater. So far, the state has received $824,793,486. The compacts lack any limits, so Foxwoods has become the largest, most profitable casino in the world; the 315,310 square-foot casino has 370 table games, keno, poker tables, race book, high-stakes bingo and 5,700 slot machines. The two Indian casinos will win more than $1.5 billion this year, making them the third largest casino market in the U.S.
*DELAWARE - A bill became law in 1994, without the Governor's signature, allowing the state's three racetracks to have up to 1,000 video lottery terminals (VLTs) each. The VLTs opened over the 1996 New Year's Eve weekend. Three-quarters of the Lottery's revenue now comes from VLTs. The Legislature doubled the number of permitted machines in 1998: Delaware Park now has 1,198, Dover Downs 1,568, Harrington (Midway) 702, for a current statewide total of 3,468.
FLORIDA - See UNITED STATES and ALABAMA. The Seminoles operate four casinos with slots, without compacts or regulations; the U.S. Attorney in Tampa has sued to close down the slots. A $17 million casino initiative lost big in 1994. Proponents have temporarily given up gathering signatures for another attempt; though, powerful legislators want a constitutional amendment on the ballot that, if approved, would give voters in large counties the right to vote on legalizing casinos. In March 1999 the House Regulated Services Committee approved, 8-0, electronic slots at tracks and jai-alai frontons; but claims that this would open the door to full casinos killed the proposal before it got to the floor. At least 28 casino ships operate cruises-to-nowhere out of Florida's ports.
GEORGIA - Three gaming ships sail into international waters (three miles out) for day-trips-to-nowhere. Georgia's state lottery is a model for the rest of the country. The state also has charity bingo and raffles.
HAWAII - All gambling is outlawed; but, over 30 bills have been introduced in the State Legislature to legalize gambling. A proposal for the state's employee retirement system and Office of Hawaiian Affairs to own a casino in Las Vegas aroused strong opposition.
IDAHO - The state constitution was amended in 1992 to specifically prohibit casinos with one target in mind: Indian casinos. But, Gov. Dirk Kempthorne signed a compact with the Shoshone-Bannock tribe and courts will decide whether gaming machines will be allowed. The Kootenai, Coeur d'Alene and Nez Perce are protesting, since they did agree to the compact. Some tribes are operating gaming devices anyway, without compacts. The Coeur d'Alenes, losing court battles, closed their Internet lottery.
!*ILLINOIS - The Illinois Legislature has approved one boat-in-a-moat casino for Cook County and Gov. George Ryan has said he will probably sign the bill. Under present law, boats may not be permanently docked, but Gov. Ryan favors liberalizing gambling regulations. The most likely location is Rosemont, a short drive from busy O'Hare Airport. The state's troubled racing industry will get 15% of the boat's adjusted gross revenue. The owners of a failed riverboat casino in East Dubuque, Ill., will probably get the nod. Under a 1990 constitutional amendment, the Legislature authorized up to ten riverboat casinos, but not in Cook County or on Lake Michigan (Chicago). Currently, there are only nine riverboats and none have the maximum allowed 1,200 gaming positions. There is constant political pressure to expand, especially with 3,500 unused but already allowed gaming positions.
!*INDIANA - In 1995 the state Supreme Court reversed a trial court and held the riverboat casino law constitutional. Nine now sail; soon, there will be 11. The four on the Ohio River are looking with fear at developments in Kentucky. Riverboat casino admission charges help subsidize the state's horse racing industry. The Pokagon band of Potawatomi Indians is trying to open a land-based casino in north-central Indiana. A study released in 1999 found gambling is the state's fifth largest source of revenue. The Senate voted to allow candidates to accept contributions from casino owners, but the House of Representatives killed it by a 2-1 vote.
!*IOWA - Slots are legal at one horse and two dog racetracks, in three Indian casinos and on nine riverboat casinos, with a tenth and eleventh about to open -- gaming is the state's fourth largest source of income. The Racing and Gaming Commission passed regulations prohibiting casinos from expanding, banning credit card cash advances and refusing to issue new licenses. New Gov. Tom Vilsack fired most of the Commissioners for going beyond the authority delegated them by the Legislature. But the Senate and House could not agree on what changes should be made, so the governor is letting the regulations stand. The Senate killed a proposal for a five-year moratorium, which would have been like money from heaven for existing operators.
!* KANSAS - Gov. Graves signed and the Legislature approved casino compacts with four tribes. Although the compacts were reported to exclude electronic gaming devices, tribal casinos have slots and video poker machines, as well as table games. In 1997 Congress prohibited the Wyandotte Tribe from using historic cemetery lands for gambling; now they want to take Woodlands racetrack into trust, for a casino. In February 1999, a bill was introduced to let the State Lottery operate slots at dog and horse tracks; a similar proposal passed the House in 1996 but died in the Senate. The governor seems open to the idea, but it probably will fail in the Senate.
KENTUCKY - Gov. Paul Patton has proposed, but not endorsed, that the state own, but not operate, up to 14 small-scale casinos, on a local-option basis. When the Legislature reconvenes in January, it will also consider VLTs and casino gaming at racetracks. The state's powerful racing industry is in trouble, due to competition from neighboring states' riverboat casinos. But, a constitutional amendment requires three-fifths of both houses of the Legislative and then a statewide referendum; opposition from churches is growing.
!*LOUISIANA - Video poker for 33 parishes was out, then in, and now out again: A state Court of Appeals has upheld the 1996 local elections. The decision does not affect the 31 parishes which voted to keep machines. The suit involved a state law prohibiting the video poker industry from pooling resources by forming PACs, which was declared unconstitutional only 17 days before the vote. A fight is brewing over "phantom cruises," where casinos have to close their doors even when docked. About 15,000 video poker machines throughout the state; truck stops now are limited to 50 machines, and they have to sell gasoline! Casinos: 13 on riverboats, three on Indian land (which some Senators want to tax) and one in New Orleans (presently bankrupt). Then newly-elected Gov. Mike Foster put gaming on local ballots in November 1996, but parishes with casinos voted overwhelmingly to keep their casinos and 23 parishes voted to invite casinos in.
MAINE - The federal court ruled the Maine Land Settlement Act preempts IGRA, so, the state will not be forced to negotiate for Indian casinos. Charities can offer blackjack.
MARYLAND - Tracks gave up their drive for slots, for $10 million in increased purses. A statute allows phone wagers and tracks want implementing regulations; the real goal: Internet betting. Gov. Parris Glendening appointed a task force, which voted unanimously against casinos. He then won re-election in 1998, strongly anti-gaming. There is thus no chance that charities will regain the right to run casino games & slots nor that riverboat and land-based casino bills will become law.
MASSACHUSETTS - Top lawmakers, led by newly elected Atty. Gen. Thomas Reilly, have abruptly turned against casinos. Gov. Paul Cellucci now says he will negotiate only Class II gaming with the Wampanoag Indians. Four pending casino bills thus will fail. The state's horse and dog tracks need slots to survive, but they will not get them this session. A deal between then-Gov. Weld and the tribe for a casino in New Bedford, rather than on their inaccessible reservation, was killed by the Legislature in 1997.
!*MICHIGAN - Eleven Indian casinos, with slots, all but two are in the Upper Peninsula. Gov. John Engler negotiated new compacts with most tribes in 1998. In November 1996, voters approved three casinos for Detroit, despite the strong opposition of Gov. Engler -- the first time in American history that citizens of a state voted to allow new high-stakes commercial casinos in the face of active opposition. Atty. Gen. Jennifer Granholm has approved temporary casinos for Detroit. But a federal suit is pending, because preference was given to two developers. The state's racetracks now say they need slot machines to survive. Charities are also asking the Legislature for help: bingo revenue in 1998 was down 26% from 1992. So, the House Gaming and Casino Oversight Committee has approved changing the limits on "Millionaire Parties," casino nights, from a $2,000 prize limit to total chip sales of $15,000.
!*MINNESOTA - Seventeen Indian casinos (more than in Atlantic City) with slots. A House Committee approved a bill for a constitutional amendment for the 2000 ballot to allow a State Lottery-run casino with blackjack and slots at Canterbury Park in Shakopee in direct competition with Mystic Lake Casino and dice games in bars. But, it failed, 7-7, in a Senate Committee. So Gov. Jesse Ventura and the Legislature will let the track have a 50-table card room, maximum opening bets $15, raises $30.
!*MISSISSIPPI - State law allows an unlimited number of dockside and riverboat casinos; there are now 30. Mississippi has become the third largest (non-Indian) casino state, with gambling revenues of $2.17 in 1998, 81% from 35,876 slot machines. In November 1996, voters in DeSoto County, between Tunica and Memphis, again turned down casinos. In May 1999, a court threw out the third attempt by casino opponents, the American Family Association and Elizabeth Stoner, to ban gaming by initiative.
!*MISSOURI - It has taken four elections to make casinos legal. In early 1994, the state Supreme Court nearly destroyed the state's new riverboat casino industry by limiting the boats to games with some skill. The November 1994 election amended the state constitution to allow slot machines, keno, bingo and other games of pure chance. The Court then outlawed boats-in-a-moat, but the voters made them legal, again. A $500 limit on gambling losses remains, despite repeated attempts to raise it. A joint committee of the Legislature held the Gaming Commission has the power to lift restrictions, so operators are lobbying to eliminate "phantom cruises," since no casino is required to actually leave a dock.
*MONTANA - Video poker and keno machines, without coin drops, are everywhere. Indian tribes have signed compacts allowing them also to have these limited machines, but negotiations over true casinos have broken down. State law allows card clubs and limited forms of sports betting.
NEBRASKA - Tribes would like to negotiate for full casinos, but the Santee Sioux's lawsuit against the state was dismissed following Seminole. The tribe opened a casino anyway. A U.S. district judge ordered the Tribe to pay a $3,000 fine (never paid) for each day it keeps its northeast casino open after Feb. 2, 1999, and even commented that he might start imprisoning tribal leaders if his ruling is not taken seriously. Slot machine bills are under consideration in the State Legislature. Casino initiatives did not make the November 1996 ballot, because many signatures were from people who were dead.
!*NEVADA - Casinos range from tiny to gargantuan. "Limited licenses" allow retail establishments throughout the state to have up to 15 slot machines, but a political movement against them is growing. A movement to raise the gross gaming tax from 6.25%, the lowest in the country, to 8.25% seems to be dying.
NEW HAMPSHIRE - A key legislative committee rejected Gov. Jeanne Shaheen's plan to install up to 3,750 video gaming machines at the state's four racetracks to help fund public education. Senate President Clesson Blaisdell supports the bill, but House Speaker Donna Sytek said she would work to defeat any plan to legalize slots at tracks. The latest proposal would allow four hotels and resorts to have up to 500 slots each.
!*NEW JERSEY - The 12 casinos in Atlantic City will win over $4 billion this year, making them the largest gaming market in the U.S., just ahead of the Las Vegas strip. The State Lottery would like to put in video lottery terminals statewide. Given the casinos' political power, the proposal seems doubtful.
!* NEW MEXICO - Gov. Johnson, elected and re-elected with the help of major tribal contributions, signed compacts for casinos, which were declared illegal. The Legislature passed a statute in 1997 legalizing them, but imposed a high (16%) tax. Only four of the 11 tribes with casinos are paying in full. The compacts are being challenged in court by both tribes and gaming opponents. To get the bill through, tracks and fraternal organizations had to be given slots, too -- the first slots opened at Sunland Park in March 1999. Gov. Johnson signed a bill allowing tribes to renegotiate with a committee of 16 legislators. Opponents are threatening suit, because the full Legislature would only have the power to vote yes or no; they could not amend any proposed new compact.
!* NEW YORK - Gov. George Pataki may be pro-gaming, but leaders of the Legislature are not. They forced the Lottery to discontinue Keno and defeated constitutional amendments necessary to allow privately-owned casinos, despite the enormous success of Ontario's Casino Niagra and the Oneida tribe's Turning Stone casino. The St. Regis Mohawks will open the state's second casino – the state agreed to VLTs, for a share of the gaming revenue. The Senecas have put in 80 Video Pull-Tabs, they call class II, therefore not requiring a compact. A questionable court decision allows New York City to license casino day-trips-to-nowhere. The Off-Track Betting Corp. announced plans to set up the first state-sponsored Internet betting site, but the Legislature balked.
!*NORTH CAROLINA - In 1994 the Governor signed a compact allowing the Cherokees to offer video gaming at one bingo hall. A subsequent decision of the state Court of Appeals raises questions about the legality of video poker, but the tribe is continuing to operate its 2,300 machines. The House approved, 91-11, a bill to virtually outlaw casino cruises-to-nowhere from the North Carolina coast.
!*NORTH DAKOTA - Low-stakes charity blackjack in hotels and four Indian casinos with slots; Spirit Lake has 500 slots, blackjack, craps, poker, simulcast racing, bingo and keno. Voters feel the state has enough gambling: In 1996 a proposal for video gaming was defeated at the polls; in 1986 voters rejected establishing a State Lottery -- only the second state to do so this century.
OHIO - In 1996 a riverboat casino initiative was defeated 62% to 38%. Casino bills and initiatives have been attempted every other year for decades and always failed.
OKLAHOMA - In February 1998, voters resoundingly defeated a casino initiative after the sponsor withdrew. A proposal for a state lottery has come from a formerly anti-lottery State Senator, who looked at the November 1998 election results from Alabama and South Carolina. In 1996 voters failed to approve a state lottery, only the second time this century: Oklahoma Gov. David Walters' pro-lottery forces had been far out-spent by horse-racing interests. A federal Court of Appeals ordered the state to negotiate for tribal Class III gambling, but the case was dismissed following Seminole. A bill to allow charity raffles may accidentally re-open the door for Indian casinos.
!*OREGON - The State Lottery runs almost 8,900 video poker machines, maximum of five per location; the State Supreme Court held these do not constitute "casinos." Anti-gaming forces, led by the Rev. Tom Grey, are trying to get a referendum on the 2000 general election ballot to outlaw video poker. Indian tribes have full casinos. Charities can run casino nights. The State Lottery takes bets on professional sports events.
PENNSYLVANIA - On March 8, 1999, a proposed non-binding referendum for riverboat casinos and slots at bars and tracks was declared to be unconstitutional by the State Senate. Although only a court has the power to decide whether something is constitutional, politically, the issue is over: The Senate vote was 28 to 21. Tracks are desperately attempting to revive the issue, but slots and casinos are dead, until at least the end of Gov. Tom Ridge's term in 2003.
*RHODE ISLAND - The state runs 1,628 VLTs at Newport Grand Jai Alai and Lincoln Greyhound Park. The Lottery Commission voted 5-4 to give them 850 more, to compete with Connecticut's Indian casinos, but Gov. Lincoln Almond has filed suit. The former Governor signed a compact for an Indian casino, but local voters disapproved of casinos in their cities in a November 1994 referendum by margins as high as 84% against. The Narragansett Tribe is now gaining support in economically depressed West Warwick. But, U.S. Senator John Chaffee pushed through a bill requiring statewide voter approval. Competing bills were introduced in the General Assembly to regulate proposed casinos.
*SOUTH CAROLINA - Approximately 30,000 video poker machines throughout the state. The State Supreme Court ruled the constitution's anti-lottery provision does not apply; a federal court upheld $125-a-day maximum payouts; a state judge enjoined a law which would have prevented beer and wine sales. Voters in 30 of 46 counties approved cash payouts. Jim Hodges beat Republican incumbent Gov. David Beasley in November, 1998, by supporting a state lottery and by not opposing video poker. The lottery referendum will be in November, 2000 -- so much for the NGISC's "moratorium." The Revenue Department requires operators to be hooked into a computer monitoring system by May 31, a deadline which can not possibly be met. The House approved a ban on gambling cruises-to-nowhere; but the bill is held up in the Senate over the question of whether cities and counties should be given a local option to allow boats.
!*SOUTH DAKOTA - Casinos ($5 maximum bet) in one city, Deadwood, and on ten Indian reservations, with true slots. The State Lottery's 7,959 VLTs were declared unconstitutional by the state Supreme Court on June 22, 1994; but, voters reinstated the gaming devices by amending the state constitution in the November 1994 election. In February 1999, the House rejected bills that would have outlawed or restricted VLTs.
TENNESSEE - Lots of talk -- even long-time gambling foe Gov. Don Sundquist might be coming around, but no chance of casinos or even a lottery without a constitutional amendment. That means 2002, at the earliest.
TEXAS - A federal trial court had ruled the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo near El Paso could have a full casino, with slots, but the Fifth Circuit reversed, ruling the federal act recognizing the tribe controlled. Now, no one knows what games are allowed. The Kickipoos recently lost a case over gaming devices. Elsewhere, the Texas Attorney General ruled casinos would require amending the constitution, which won't happen this century. Presidential candidate Gov. George W. Bush has been unsuccessful in trying to kill eight-liners -- the Senate even voted to let the slots give bingo card prizes at bingo halls and parimutuel betting tickets at tracks.
VERMONT - A bill to allow casinos on railroads didn't leave the station. A racetrack in the southern part of the state is campaigning hard for slot machines and a bill to allow full casinos is pending.
VIRGINIA - In 1994 a riverboat casino bill sank under the weight of excess baggage: Disney's proposed historic theme park got tacked on. The bills were reintroduced in 1995, for the third time, and have already been defeated.
!* WASHINGTON - Twenty tribes have casinos, supposedly without slots. (IGRA grandfathered-in one with true slots). The tribes sued the state, but the Ninth Circuit dismissed the suit after the U.S. Supreme Court's Seminole decision. Voters turned down proposals for tribal slots in 1995 and 1996. But the tribes have them now anyway, in the form of video lottery machines. In an attempt to level the playing field, the Legislature allowed privately owned cardrooms to have house-banked blackjack. There are now more than 40 mini-casinos; Gov. Gary Locke supports bills to limit their growth.
*WEST VIRGINIA - In March 1999 the Legislature approved the unique "Limited Gaming Facility Act" -- Greenbrier County voters will decide whether to permit a casino with VLTs at the Greenbrier Resort, open only to registered overnight guests of the hotel. Four tracks (2 greyhound and 2 thoroughbred) have VLTs; the law prevents any newly-built track from having gaming devices. Jefferson County voted in November 1996 to permit VLTs at Charles Town Races; the voters had turned the track down in 1994. Gov. Cecil Underwood let a bill become law without his signature, allowing VLTs to accept coins. A bill allowing VLTs across the state is still technically alive.
!*WISCONSIN - Fifteen Indian casinos with slots. The legislature voted in 1993 to prohibited further casino expansion, but proposals for massive new casinos still pop up. The original compacts began expiring in 1998, but were mostly renewed when tribes agreed to raise the gambling age to 21 and make larger payments to the state: the state's share went from $400,000 to $20 million a year.
WYOMING - An initiative to allow full casinos was defeated by a two-to-one margin on November 8, 1994. The electoral defeat means fewer jobs for lawyers: The initiative was so poorly written that it was legally unclear whether bets would have been limited to $25 maximum or whether there would have been no limits. State law allows limited sports betting.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA - Riverboat casino initiative failed to get enough legitimate signatures: Of 45,000 signatures gathered, fewer than 15,000 were from voters. "Monte Carlo" nights for charities are a growing concern.
!*COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANAS - Casinos with slots are allowed.
*GUAM - Gaming devices are legal. In November 1996 an initiative to allow full casinos to compete with those on the nearby island of Saipan in the Northern Marianas was defeated at the polls.
!*PUERTO RICO - Full casinos with a strange twist: The government used to own the slot machines. A movement to privatize developed in 1996.
!* VIRGIN ISLANDS - Local voters approved the concept of legalized casinos in a non-binding referendum in November 1994. Legislation for casinos has been approved, and the first license issued. The Legislature now wants VLTs, which would hurt the casino expected to open in November, 1999.
I. NELSON ROSE
Professor I. Nelson Rose is an internationally known public speaker, writer and scholar and is recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on gambling law. A 1979 graduate of Harvard Law School, he is a tenured full Professor of Law at Whittier Law School in Costa Mesa, California, where he teaches one of the first law school classes on gambling law.
Professor Rose is the author of more than 200 articles, books and chapters on the subject. He is best known for his internationally syndicated column, "Gambling and the Law®," and his landmark 1986 book by the same name. His most recent book -- just released -- is a collection of columns and analysis on Blackjack and the Law.
A consultant to governments and industry, Professor Rose has testified as an expert witness in administrative, civil and criminal cases and has acted as a consultant to major law firms, licensed casinos, international corporations, players, Indian tribes, and local, state and national governments, including California, Florida, New Jersey, Texas, Washington, and the federal government of Canada.
With the rising interest in gambling throughout the world, Professor Rose has been called upon to discuss gambling and the law before such diverse groups as the National Conference of State Legislatures, Congress of State Lotteries of Europe, National Academy of Sciences and the United States Conference of Mayors. He has presented scholarly papers on gambling in Nevada, New Jersey, Puerto Rico, England, Australia, Portugal, Argentina and the Czech Republic.
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Best of I. Nelson Rose
I. Nelson Rose
I. Nelson Rose